Specific aims of the study are as follows: 1) To test whether supplementation of POA, as compared to placebo, improves insulin sensitivity. 2) To test whether supplementation of POA, as compared to placebo, ameliorates hepatosteatosis and decreases whole-body fat mass, serum triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol. 3)To determine whether supplementation of POA, as compared to placebo, decreases plasma levels of fasting glucose, insulin, FABP4, glucagon, inflammatory cytokines, and hsCRP.
The investigators will recruit overweight and obese individuals (BMI 25-40) with mild insulin resistance, prediabetes and/or impaired glucose tolerance. The study is powered only for the primary endpoint, insulin sensitivity. After the screening visit confirms the eligibility for the study; the investigators will perform an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for stratified randomization for better homogeneity between POA and placebo groups. The investigators aim to have 40 participants complete the study which will consist of 2 main overnight visits consisting of an insulin clamp procedure and a mixed meal tolerance test the night prior. Participants will also have a liver MRI and DEXA scan at these two visits. Participants will be asked to consume a palmitoleic acid minimized diet for 10 weeks which will start two weeks before the first overnight visit. This research study will compare insulin sensitivity before and 8 weeks after taking POA vs placebo in the same individuals. After the first overnight visit participants will be given either POA or placebo capsules to take daily for 8 weeks until the second overnight visit. There will also be a short blood draw visit 4 weeks after the first overnight visit.
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