The study team will develop and pilot an educational and counseling intervention to improve SMB among breast cancer survivors with comorbid DM. Development of Counseling Modules to Promote SMB: The study team will use triangulation analysis to integrate, compare, and contrast the quantitative and qualitative data in order to identify modifiable beliefs and emotional reactions that are associated with DM SMB and which could be the target of tailored education and counseling interventions. The study team will develop modules that address survivors’ modifiable beliefs, provide coping skills for emotional reactions to illness, and suggest self-management strategies that have been found to be successful among peers. Triangulation analyses will be conducted following the methods outlined by Farmer beginning with sorting findings from qualitative and quantitative interviews, convergence coding and then convergence assessment, completeness assessment, researcher comparison and feedback.
Developing the Counseling and Education Approach: The CSM has been used to develop behavioral interventions for patients with low adherence to chronic disease SMB. It is similar to DiMatteo’s evidence-based 3-factor model of strategies (provide correct information, ensure appropriate beliefs, and eliminate tangible barriers) that has been successfully used to improve medication adherence. The study team will develop 3 basic modules addressing determinants of SMB identified in the study team’s quantitative and qualitative analyses and that could be integrated into a future comprehensive self-management support intervention: 1) Addressing DM and Breast Cancer Beliefs: The study team will use cognitive restructuring techniques to address misconceptions about breast cancer and DM and medication adherence. For example, some may believe that DM self-management is not important because breast cancer will likely recur and progress quickly. These views can be “reconstructed” by teaching survivors about timeline and consequences of breast cancer vs. DM allowing them to understand the disease timelines relative to each other. Moreover, the study team will clarify the potential impact of poor DM control on breast cancer outcomes. 2) Addressing Emotional Responses: Anxiety and worries will be addressed with normalizing statements (e.g., “Many patients feel that way…” “It is natural to be worried about side-effects…”). For those who report elevated levels of cancer (or DM) worry and distress, the study team will offer relaxation exercises, such as a deep breathing exercise coupled with stress reducing visualizations. 3) Practical Strategies to Instill Routine SMB: Qualitative interviews will elucidate various strategies that survivors have devised to support their SMB. These patient-identified approaches will be collated and explored with participants as potential strategies the participants might employ as well. Particularly for those with cognitive issues, strategies might include using external aids (i.e., texted phone reminders, alarms, pill box organizers, medication schedules, etc.), linking SMB to routine daily tasks, providing family support, etc. The study team will also use strategies to enhance information comprehension and retention by breast cancer survivors with cognitive dysfunction including teach-to-goal, multi-modal communication, and optimized formatting of print materials.
Source: View full study details on ClinicalTrials.gov
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