Twenty-five participants will complete five weeks of heart rate variability biofeedback using emWave software (HeartMath®Institute, 2020). Participants will receive a weekly 30-minute heart rate variability biofeedback session for five weeks at the University Parkway Center, Brigham Young University. The heart rate variability biofeedback protocol will be based on Lehrer et al., 2013 and Yoo et al., 2022. This format will aid participants in implementing and learning breathing and heart rate variability biofeedback skills (Lehrer et al., 2020). All participants will wear an ear sensor to measure their pulse. The heart rate variability biofeedback will focus on autonomic balance through slow breathing at a resonance frequency of approximately 6 breathes per minute. The best approximate breathing pace for resonance frequency will be estimated and participant’s resonance frequency will be provided and used for their homework and subsequent training sessions.
The first session of the HRVB intervention will focus on introducing the client to HRVB and calculating the participant’s resonance frequency which typically range from 4.5-7 breaths per minute. Participants will first complete a five-minute baseline breathing condition. Following the breathing condition, the participants will complete five conditions for five minutes each. Specifically, each condition will have the person breath at 6, 6.5, 5.5, 5, and 4.5 breaths per minute with a minute break between. Session two will focus on practicing resonance frequency breathing and solidifying the correct resonance frequency for the participant. Additionally, this session will introduce the technique of breathing through pursed lips and abdominal breathing. For sessions three through five, participants will practice resonance frequency breathing and review previous strategies.
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. By listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.