Cardiovascular disease risk factors, including higher BMIs and poor cholesterol profiles, are on the rise and contribute to the United States’ growing disease burden. Cottonseed oil (CSO) is found readily in our food supply. Our previous studies have demonstrated that incorporating CSO into the diet is sufficient to reduce fasting total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and improve postprandial lipid and/or glycemic responses in both healthy and at-risk populations. However, in these human studies, diets provided 30-44% of total energy from CSO, which corresponded to high-fat (HF) diet intake (40-50% of energy). The impact of lower doses of CSO on human health has yet to be tested. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether lower doses of CSO are equally effective as previously proven high doses for improving fasting and postprandial lipid metabolism and markers of chronic disease risk. If lower doses of CSO in the diet are found to improve these markers, these study findings could lead to improvements in health.
This prospective clinical study is a single-blinded, randomized control trial in adults at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (poor cholesterol profiles or overweight/obesity). There are four diet interventions: CSO LOW (10% energy from CSO), CSO MID (20% energy from CSO), CSO HIGH (30% energy from CSO), and CON (10% energy from control oil mix). The study protocol consists of a 28-day intervention where participants are provided breakfast shakes and snacks that contain different amounts of cooking oil depending on their random group assignment.
There are a total of 6 testing visits: screening (v0), pre-intervention (v1), 3 weekly short visits (v2, v3, v4), and post-intervention (v5).
At screening (v0), qualification is confirmed based on anthropometrics and fasting blood draw, which is analyzed for a cholesterol panel and blood glucose. Additionally, energy requirements are estimated at this visit for use in the diet intervention.
At v1, participants will have anthropometrics measured, including body composition, by BodPod. Next, a certified phlebotomist places an IV catheter and takes the fasting blood sample. Then the participant consumes a high-saturated-fat meal challenge which delivers 35% of their estimated energy needs (from v0). Then the participant has blood drawn 8 times using the IV catheter over the next 5 hours.
28-day dietary intervention: Before leaving v1, participants are sent home with their first week’s supply of daily shakes and snacks corresponding to their randomly assigned group. The ingredients for the breakfast shakes and snacks are identical between groups, the only difference being the amount of the assigned oil incorporated into the foods. All foods are portioned based on individual energy needs as estimated at v0.
Participants return weekly (v2, v3, v4) to return study materials and collect food for the next week. At these weekly visits, participants also have a fasting blood draw, body measures and consume their first breakfast shake of the week in the lab.
At the end of the 28-day dietary intervention, participants return for v5, where all procedures from v1 are repeated.
The investigators hypothesize that CSO LOW, CSO MID, and CSO HIGH will improve the proposed overall health outcomes and markers of chronic disease risk without changing inflammatory markers compared to the control group.
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. By listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.